In the end of the semester, through Information and Communication Technology (SSI 3013) lessons, I have learn many new things. My first lesson is about Paint. Actually I am not familiar with Paint. But after I heard about Mr. Azmi explanation, I am able to do my work with Paint now. Then, blog. Actually I’ve been to a blog workshop before. However, there’s not many that I learned from there. But, through En. Azmi assignment, make a blog to publish his assignments and others, I manage to make a blog successfully and know many new things about blog. The assignments about Smart School really gives me many useful information related to education and Smart School development. This course not only teach me about ICT but about learning and teaching process and also about education progress in Malaysia. Through this course too, I manage to learn about many interesting thing related to education such as teaching tools and others. This course also teach me about cooperation within group, division of time to accomplish many works and many more. For me, I think the class session is okay however I think the environment is quite lame and not happening. However, this might be due to the class session which is at the evening thus the student is tired hence make the environment become lame.
Sunday, 2 December 2012
Data Logging On Determination The Hydration Enthalpy Of An Electrolyte.
What is Data Logging?
Data logging is the process of using computer to collect data through sensors, analyze the data and save the output the results of the collection and analysis. Data logging is also implies the control of how the computer collects and analyzes the data. Data logging is commonly used in scientific experiments and monitoring systems where there is the need to collect information faster than a human can possibly collect the information and in this case the accuracy is essential. Examples of the types of information and a data logging system can collect include temperatures, sound frequencies, vibrations, times, light intensities, electrical currents, pressures and changes in states of matter. Computer data logging has been used in teaching science in number of countries since the 1980s. As summary, a collection of results is known as data while the process of handling data by using modern computer technology referred to as data logging.
Elements of Data Logging
Data logging system consists of sensor, interface box and computer with appropriate software. A sensor is a device that responds to some physical property of the environment like temperature, pressure, light intensity, voltage, current and many more. Then, the variation of physical properties is converted into signals that is recognized by a device called interface box. The interface box is used to convert the signal of the sensor to a digital signal which is can be read by the computer. The interface will connected to the computer via a serial port of computer. Then, computer is used to display the data and read the information from sensor. Specialised computer software is required so that the computer can interpret and process the signals from the interface box. Examples of data logging software such as Data Studio, HOBOware and many more. The sensors, interface box, computer and appropriate computer software called as the data logging system.
Advantages the Use of Data Logging in Science Teaching
From research that have been carried out, data logging can improves graphing skills of students and help them to form links between what they have learnt in class with the process of investigating scientific relationships. The interpretations of graphs is significantly improved as they have applied the skills of real-time reporting where the graph is drawn at the same time as the experiment is performed will encourage reflection and interpretation among students. Apart from that, computer data logging practical work also will give more benefits compared to the conventional approach in the presentation of data. By using data logging, the quality of written homework was greatly improved as the data can be easily manipulated and presented in the form of clearly drawn graphs. Real-time data logging presents the graph on the screen “as it happens” and this is especially beneficial to the less able student.
Data logging also can save times in pattern of student’s activity in preparing apparatus and materials, measuring and reporting data towards spent more on observation, manipulation of data and discussion among students of the results obtained when using this data logging system. The automatic logging of experimental data and graphical representations allowed for more focused approach to changes in experimental variables and discussion of results. It was clear that they have better insight into this experimental work being performed. Besides, students need to take less prolonged readings and through the software they can spend more time in analysing information. The immediate visual feedback via the computer enables ‘on the fly’ adjustment to experiments. In addition, without the aid of computer data logging spent more considerably more time in data collection.
In general, we can see that students find information technology to be a good stimulus for learning. The software tools for calculation and analysis will reduce tasks considered to be tedious and repetitive into creative opportunities for carrying out investigation in laboratory. This will increased level of interest among students in bringing science teaching and learning process into twenty-first century. Data logger also allows students to collect data from whole range of sources at one particular time. For example, in evaporation experiment they are not just only measuring the temperature today, but three or fours variables that might be affecting the outcome of evaporation. Students are able to collect information anywhere and anytime, which means a whole community potentially becomes part of the learning environment.
Disadvantages the Use of Data Logging in Science Teaching
One of the disadvantages of using data logging is the special features of data logging graphing software sometimes gives the variaties of difficulties associated in handling the data logging software, They need to setup the software more wisely and carefully so that it does not gives not accurate and not precise result when it was displayed on the computer. If it was happened, they need to modifiy any devices related so that it can be function well.
Besides, by using data logging, the students will face difficulties if the devices or equipments are broken or cannot be function well. So, they need times in repairing the devices so that they can use to run their experiment. The data logging and computerized devices really need meticulous care as there are really sensitive tools.
Experiment : Determination Of The Hydration Enthalpy Of An Electrolyte
The dissolution of a solid electrolyte in water is primary determined by two simultaneously occur in processes : the destruction of the crystal lattice and the hydration of the ions. The degradation of the crystal lattice is an endothermic process because energy is required to breakdown the chemical bonds, whereas the hydration of the ions is exothermic. Depending on the type of lattice, and both the radius and the charge of the ions (charge density), the resulting enthalpy of the solution can be either or exothermic. When a salt exists in both hydrated and dehydrated forms, and one assumes that during the dissolution of the hydrated salt only the degradation of the crystal lattice occurs, the enthalpy of hydration can be calculated with Hess’s theorem (Figure 1).
Picture (a) is about the process melting of an ice while picture (b) is about the process of freezing of an ice. In processes, heat or energy is involved. But, there are some different either heat absorbed or heat released. Reaction that release heat termed exothermic while reaction that absorbed heat termed endothermic. Which one of this picture is exothermic reaction? Which one of this picture endothermic reaction? How the temperature or heat of the surrounding changes?
In this experiment, anhydrous copper (II) sulphate and copper (II) sulphate were used. Both compounds are made up of copper and sulphate but one of them contain water molecule while the other one do not contain water molecule. Most of the people always have misconception about the molecular formula of copper (II) sulphate and anhydrous copper (II) sulphate. Most of them think that the molecular formula of anhydrous copper (II) sulphate is CuSO4.5H2O while the molecular formula of copper (II) sulphate is CuSO4.
Actually, anhydrous copper (II) sulphate is molecule without molecule of water but copper (II) sulphate is molecule with water. So, the actual molecular formulae of anhydrous copper (II) sulphate is CuSO4 while the molecular formula of copper (II) sulphate is CuSO4.5H2O But, is both of them have same type of enthalpy? If both of them have same type of enthalpy, which one of them has highest enthalpy value? Which one undergoes exothermic process and which one undergo endothermic process?
Engage is the process to generate idea or to induce any idea about the topic. The teacher can use the phenomenon happen in our life, video simulation or figures and pictures to make the students able to think why it happened. In this experiment, we have used the formation of ice and the melting of ice to relate both of these situations with endothermic and exothermic reaction so that the students can start to think. In engage stage, the students will start to explore about the topic, start to think abstractly and start to formulate and develop the concepts.
1) First, the experiment set-up is performed.
2) Then, 24.97g (0.1 mol) of copper (II) sulphate and 15.96g (0.1 mol) of anhydrous copper (II) sulphate, which has been finely pulverized in a mortar are weighed.
3) The calorimeter is filled with 900mL of distilled water. The magnetic stirring bar is put into the calorimeter and latter is placed onto heating stirrer.
4) After attaching the heating coil and the temperature probe, the magnetic stirrer is switched on. Please be aware, do not mistakenly switch on the heating unit.
5) When the equilibrium temperature has been reached in the calorimeter approximately 5 minutes, the first copper salt is added to the water by pouring it through powder funnel which has been inserted in the opening in the lid. While doing so, make sure the entire quantity of salt is added to the water without any loss.
6) The registration of the temperature-time curve is begun first.
7) Ten minutes after the salt has completely dissolved, the electrical calibration* is conducted in order to determine the total heat capacity of the calorimeter.
*10AV is supplied to the work and power meter for the electrical heating. Performed a reset and then the free ends of the heating coil’s connection cables are plugged into the output jacks of the work and power meter. The system is heated continuously, and the supplied quantity of energy is measured. After electrical energy amounting to approximately 4000Ws has been supplied, the heating is switched off and the exact quantity of electrical energy is read from the meter.
8) 10 minutes later the temperature recording is also terminated.
9) The corrected temperature differences, ∆T for the calibration and solution experiment are determined are determined as shown in Figure 2.
10) This correction is necessary because of the heat exchange with the surroundings. The vertical straight line which intersects the lines and are drawn in such a manner that the shaded areas are equal size.
11) For the calibration, is determined analogously from the intersection points of .
12) The same experiment is repeated to determine the enthalpy of solution for both Copper (II) sulphates. At least two measurements should be performed for each salt to avoid errors and to be able to calculate the mean value.
Figure 2 : Graphical determination of the correct T values from the temperature time curve.
Figure 1 : Apparatus set up
Figure 2 :Picture of sensor
· Hydrates are compounds that incorporate water molecules into their fundamental solid structure.
· All hydrating water is removed, the material is said to be anhydrous
· Enthalpy of solution of copper (II) sulphate is exothermic reaction
· Enthalpy of anhydrous copper (II) sulphate is endothermic reaction
· The 5H2O in the formula of anhydrous copper(II) sulphate is called the water of crystallisation and forms part of the crystal structure when copper(II) sulphate solution is evaporated and crystals form. This crystal structure is broken down on heating and the water is given off. So, the thermal decomposition is endothermic as heat is absorbed to drive off the water. Meanwhile, the reverse reaction is called as and exothermic reaction. This is because it needs adding water to white anhydrous copper(II) sulphate and the mixture heats up as the blue crystals reform. The reverse reaction is used as a simple chemical test for water where white anhydrous copper(II) sulphate turns blue.
· The enthalpy change is the ‘enthalpy change of hydration’.
· Enthalpy change of reaction is endothermic reaction.
· The value of enthalpy change of reaction is 152.04kJmol-1.
· CuSO4 (s) + 5 H2O (l) → CuSO4 • 5H2O (s)
· CuSO4 (s) + H 2O(l) → CuSO4 (aq)
(ashy white) (deep blue)
Empower is something that gaining a power in particular activity by individuals or groups. It is also the process of giving power to the students or process that foster and facilitate their taking of power. Besides, empower also a process to achieve goals or some effort to understand some critical understanding. So, in data logging learning, the teacher can empower their student by performing an experiment so that they can have more understanding about what they have learnt theoretically in class. From data logging process, the method used is by using a sensor and computer rather than using traditional method. So, the students can see clearly the result. Hence they can make comparison directly between their results with the theory. If there’s any differences happen, they can make discussion regarding the result they got. The students will construct their concept of learning by understanding the process involve in the experiment. In this topic, students may be surprised that energy can either be evolved or absorbed in reactions. To make a chemical bond, another bond must first be broken. It is the sum of the energy changes in making and breaking bonds that results in the overall energy change. If temperature sensors and data logging equipment are available, they may be appropriate in this context. This is because a temperature sensor attached to a computer can be used in place of a thermometer. It can plot the temperature change on a graph and make a helpful demonstration to the students of what happens when chemicals react. This data logging set up might be the basis for a project where students have to find the mix of chemicals that yield the optimal heat loss or
Cold packs and putting ice in towel causes a cooling effect on their person’s head and temporarily relieve the pain and fever. Explain.
There are two types of cold packs which are small inner bag and an outer bag. The small inner bag can be just water and the outer bag can be ionic salts such as Ammonium Chloride or Potassium Nitrate. When the pack is squeezed, the small inner bag breaks the ionic salt dissolves in water. When the cold pack is used, the chemicals inside the pack are made to react with each other and this reaction is highly endothermic in nature. Endothermic reactions involve the absorption of heat. The ammonium nitrate mixing with the water creates cold. The temperature of cold packs can reach back to normal temperature. The heat energy is taken into the system from the surrounding. The surrounding in this case is the person’s head.
Another alternative way in reducing headache or fever is by wrapping some ice inside a small towel and hold it against forehead. This is a traditional way practiced by our parent to cool down the temperature and pain. The concept is the same as the cold pack. As the ice melts to become liquid water, it would take in energy from the surroundings and melting is considered an endothermic process. The solid ice will become the system and our forehead becomes the surrounding. The system takes in heat energy from the surrounding and thus directly remove heat from our forehead and can reduce pain.
Enhance is something to make it better, to add or contribute to. In data logging learning, enhance is the third phase after empower stage which is to increase student’s understanding on a given problem or topic by relating it with the example of application. For example, if we give some situation or application in our environment or daily life application, the students will be able to relate the reasons of the situation given on what they have learnt. So that, they can apply their learning concept in daily life application in order to enable them to understand and remember. So, in this experiment, we should provide an example related to endothermic or exothermic reaction. The students may have developed their understanding about these reactions at empower stage but then when at the enhance process, they just need to add any additional knowledge by relate in with daily life applications.
N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) ↔ 2NH3 (g)
What will happen to the production of ammonia gas reaction if we increase the concentration the temperature of the reactant mixture?
If the temperature of a reaction mixture is increase, the equilibrium will shift to decrease the temperature. Based on Le Chatelier’s Principle which stated that if a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in concentration, temperature or total pressure, the equilibrium will shift in order to minimize that changes a new equilibrium is established. So, if we increase the temperature, the equilibrium will shift to the reactant part which is left. So, the reaction will undergo endothermic reaction as it use up heat energy. Ammonia will broken down into hydrogen and nitrogen gas. An increase in temperature will decrease the yield of ammonia , NH3.
As a teacher, we should apply the use of data logger in teaching and learning process in line with the developments of technology. The use of this type of teaching process can enhance the learning style and gives the positive impact on teaching Science process especially. Teacher will use the three steps in data logging process like engage, empower and enhance to make the students get highly understanding about what they have learnt. Usually during science theory classes, students do not have the opportunity to
verify the appropriateness of the information that the teacher is putting forward. So, the use of technology which incorporates data logging will significantly ease the situation and able to develop logical understanding of the abstract concept. At the same time, they can obtain the information on the truthfulness of the underlying processes. The use of data logging will bring cognitive acceleration to learning, as the teachers can support their teaching with undeniable facts, thus students can be able to revisit any misconception they hold on the spot.
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